@inproceedings {Simula.simula.2894,
title = {A Novel Framework for Classifying Wall Shear Stress Phenotypes in Arterial Disturbed Blood Flow},
journal = {World Congress of Biomechanics Proceedings},
year = {2014},
publisher = {JBioMech},
type = {Conference},
abstract = {Background and Purpose: Recent high-resolution (HR) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations have revealed that flow instabilities with high-frequency fluctuations can occur at relatively low Reynolds numbers (Valen-Sendstad and Steinman, 2014). We have assumed that the highly disturbed wall shear stress (WSS) caused by such flow instabilities impact the (dys)functional nature of arterial endothelial cells, believed to initiate arterial diseases. Current indices designed to quantify the disturbed WSS, such as oscillatory shear index (OSI) and transverse wall shear stress (transWSS), however, sometimes fail to distinguish different types of highly disturbed WSS. We propose a method for quantifying and distinguishing the WSS disturbances adequately and demonstrate its capability. Materials and Methods: We used an anatomically realistic carotid siphon derived from the open-source Aneurisk data-set. The aneurysm was removed with previously developed and verified tools. Pulsatile flow was simulated using 30,000 time-steps per cycle and the equivalent of 24M linear tetrahedrons. Changes in instantaneous WSS were decomposed into magnitude and angle variations, respectively, with the angle defined relative to the cycle-averaged WSS vector direction. The proposed classification of WSS phenotypes therefore consists of a permutation (from low to high values) of WSS, WSS magnitude change, and WSS angle change; a total of 9. Results: The attached figure shows the distributions of OSI, transWSS, and the currently proposed phenotypes. Despite highly different stimuli at the wall (shown in the polar plots, where the WSS magnitude is plotted on a common logarithmic scale), both OSI and transWSS calculations return the same numerical value for large regions. E.g., the WSS phenotype in polar plots OSI=.211},
author = {Shimogonya, Yuji and Valen-Sendstad, Kristian and David A. {Steinman}},
editor = {Jay D. {Humphrey}}
}